My Previous Blog post talks about How to know Client Cache folder size in your Environment using Custom MOF.What is you are deploying Larger packages or Your Cache size is full with applications and software updates ?
By Default,Configuration Manager Client stores the Deployed packages (could be applications,Packages,Software updates etc) in C:\windows\SysWOW64\CCM\Cache (CM07) and C:\Windows\ccmcache(CM12).
The Size of the Cache folder can be specified while installing SCCM Client using parameter SMSCACHESIZE .If you do not set this property while installing SCCM Client, the folder defaults to a maximum size of 5120 MB. The lowest value you can specify is 1 MB.
For More information how Client Cache Works,Read TechNet Article
Note From TechNet Article:If you reinstall a client, you cannot use the SMSCACHESIZE installation properties to set the cache size to be smaller than it was previously. If you try to do this, your value is ignored and the cache size is automatically set to the last size it was previously.
What happens when the Specified Cache limit size is full or no space to download the BIG Packages since there is no auto mechanism to delete the content ?
Two Options you have: 1) Either Delete the content which was not used since X days or Delete all the Content.
I have blogged about how to delete the Software Updates from the Cache folder http://eskonr.com/2012/05/vb-script-to-delete-software-update-files-from-sccm-client-cache-folder/
2) Increase the Cache Size Limit ,Blog talks about this Option.
Create Notepad File and save it as Filename.vbs
On Error Resume Next
Set UIResManager = createobject ("UIResource.UIResourceMgr")
Note:Replace the double quotes(“) as blog converts them fancy.
To Increase size of Cache folder on Bulk Machines,You can advertise this as a package onto Collection.
You can also Achieve this using powershell script http://www.david-obrien.net/2013/02/07/how-to-configure-the-configmgr-client/
Hope It helps!